There is a basic rule here for English learners: ed has three different pronunciations in English based on whether the final consonant is voiced (using the vocal chords) or unvoiced (not using them) or a separate syllable. For example:
Here are the rules:
- The /t/ sound
If the last consonant of the word is voiceless, then the ED is pronounced as a T. Be careful not to create an extra syllable or "id" sound.
talked (sounds like "talkt")
kissed (the S sound comes from the front of mouth so it would sound like "kisst")
Voiceless means you do not use your vocal chords in your throat to make the sound, voiced means you do. Voiceless means you push the air out through your teeth for the t sound.
- The /d/ sound
If the last letter of the words ends in a voiced consonant (or sound), then the ED is pronounced like a D (without creating another syllable)
played (sounds like "playd")
closed (the S sounds like a vibrating Z so the word would sound like "clozd")
- The /id/ sound
If the last letter of the word is spelled with D or T, the ED is pronounced as a separate syllable with an /id/ sound (it rhymes with kid and lid).
wanted (sounds like "want-id")
This is all taken from HERE:
Woodward English which is an excellent site
And here is a chart from that site:
Please note: in Portuguese, for example, there are no words ending like this (final t as tapped) or with a final d. Most words end in separate syllable which is why it takes practice to understand this and learn it. Obviously, you have to know the pronunciation of the word in order to know how to pronounce the ED at the end. So, if you learn "talk",that k is voiceless, therefore, talked has a t sound. Likewise, if you learn "learn", you should be able to produce the final d in learned.
Be careful not to say walk-ed with ed as a separate syllable and practice saying: walkt. Many Portuguese speakers do not make that distinction in English, at least when they are beginners.
If you do not pronounce the final t or d or separate syllable, you will not be using the simple past. The only way to know that a verb is in the simple past when speaking is to pronounce the final phonemes correctly.
English speakers all make these distinctions and most of them have no idea why. Most don't until they learn how to teach formally teach the language or do some kind of phonology training in linguistics or speech therapy...
The good news here is that this applies to most varieties of English. Tnere is no difference, for example, between BrE, AmE, CanE, AusE,SaE with regard to these pronunciation rules.
[Even in cases like "I talked to my father" in AmE you get: "I talkta my father.""
The final t is very clear though in speech squished together with the pronoun to which becomes an ah sound.]