As @Ronald Sole says, it's a metaphor. However the phrase doesn't have to be.
I waved goodbye to my wife and she drove off down the road. To my surprise she circled right back around the block and parked in front of the house. She had forgotten her reading glasses!
Your original sentence could be expressed in various shorter forms, e.g.
She went so far beyond that, she circled right back around to describably beautiful."
She went so far beyond that, she circled back around to describably beautiful."
She went so far beyond that, she circled around to describably beautiful."
People can circle around the globe or a table or pretty much any object in real life. The metaphor doesn't explain what she circles around - presumably it is some scale of beauty. beautiful, very beautiful, extremely beautiful, indescribably beautiful etc.
There is no such scale but we can imagine one.