To the student:
I'm sorry that your English teacher did not answer your question. I can easily understand your sentence, but I don't know how long you have been speaking, reading and writing English. Seems like you're doing pretty good with subjects, nouns and verbs.
Your sentence is a compound sentence. They use conjunctions and some make better sense than others (that means they don't sound goofy).
There are plenty of tenses, so here are the three basics. The past tense (what you "did" last week). The present tense (what you "do" right now), and the future tense (what you "will do" next week). The verbix.com web site has every verb in the English language. You will see the past tense, the present tense and the future tense (ignore all those other "tenses" until you are ready).
Your sentence (or part of it): I go out with umbrella. Yes...but "goofy." I "go out with" girls, or I "go out with" boys, or I "go out with" friends. BUT! I "take" an umbrella.
AND TO MAKE YOUR SENTENCE NOT SO GOOFY... Because it is raining, I will take an umbrella.
English "takes" time to learn. Hear (and see) how goofy it sounds if I wrote, "I go out with time."
So now you will only go out with girls, or boys, or friends AND YOU WLL NEVER GO OUT WITH UMBRELLA! Because you can not have fun with umbrellas, unless you are a goofy circus clown.
## *********** ##
The argument about beginning a sentence with a conjunction reminds me of a joke....
The upper-crust ladies from Hyannis Port Maine were in their seats and ready to go, looking forward to the beautiful springtime ride through historic Savannah Georgia. Their tour guide, a drop-dead gorgeous blonde, came aboard the bus and greeted them with a warm welcome, "And where are all y'all from?"
Every passenger went stone-cold quite, gave her a haughty snuff and looked away. Faces held that look of contempt until one sitting on the front seat curled her forefinger, motioning the Southern Belle to come closer. She whispered in a condescending tone, "We don't like to speak with people who begin their sentences with conjunctions, and end them with prepositions."
Blondie didn't miss a beat, cranked up the intercom and said with a big smile, "I do declare! All y'all queen bitches come from Hyannis Port Maine?!"