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The sentence is from here: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/to%20hell%20with

"They want me to stop, but to hell with them!" If I am correct, this is a compound sentence. The second clause should have a subject too.

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    Structurally similar, less profanely, [Off] to bed [with you]! is a very common imperative Note that although we're all perfectly familiar with it, I don't suppose many native speakers could give you a meaningful analysis of the "syntax" of, for example, Be off with you! (which is becoming very popular lately). – FumbleFingers Sep 19 '20 at 16:21
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    ...I suppose that as usual, there's an implied subject You (the addressee) and an implied verb be in Off to bed! And I further suppose that optional with you there implies the addressee is being told to take himself off / away. But I suspect what we've got here is a "frozen form" that doesn't reflect normal current syntax in English. – FumbleFingers Sep 19 '20 at 16:26
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The part after the word "but" isn't quite a clause because it doesn't have a verb. It's an exclamation meaning, effectively, "Let them go to hell!", or "Damn them!". This is figurative language meaning their opinions aren't important and they should be ignored.

Some other examples of this kind of exclamation using with are

Out with it!
(meaning "say what you are holding back", or "get rid of something")

Down with the dictator!
(meaning that one wants the dictator to be deposed)

This use of with is mentioned here:

Lexico "with"

(phrase) away with
Used in exhortations to take or send someone or something away, in, out, etc.
off with his head
away with poverty!

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  • Here "but" is a conjuction used to link another clause. Well, I should have asked what the implied subject and verb are in front of the prepositional phrase "to hell with them." – Den Allan Sep 19 '20 at 16:06
  • You might be able to make up an implied subject and verb and fit them to that phrase, but you could just consider it to be a "frozen form", as suggested in FFRM's comment to your question. – Jack O'Flaherty Sep 19 '20 at 16:43

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