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Which ones are grammatically correct in the following?

The city is in east Germany.

The city is in eastern Germany.

The city is in (the) east part of Germany.

The city is in (the) eastern part of Germany.

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    All but the third are acceptable (you do need the in No. 4), but note that East Germany used to refer to the Communist-controlled area before reunification. Sep 19 '20 at 19:36
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We don't talk about "north England" or "east France" or "south Spain". It is always "northern England", "eastern France", "southern Spain" (or, of course, "the north of England", etc).

"North", "East" etc are used before a country name when naming an official entity (often a separate state) with clearly demarcated borders: "North Korea", "South Sudan", etc. In such cases, "North", "South", etc, have capital letters. ("Northern Ireland" uses the -ern suffix even though it refers to a distinct jurisdiction.)

"East Germany", with a capital E, was the usual English name for the German Democratic Republic (GDR) (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR). The Federal Republic of Germany (with its pre-reunification borders) was called "West Germany", with a capital W.

If the city is in the former GDR, you can say:

The city is in the former East Germany.

Regardless of whether it is in the former GDR, you can say:

The city is in eastern Germany.

The following are also correct:

The city is in the east of Germany.

The city is in the eastern part of Germany.

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  • How about then " it is in east Canada"
    – Mrt
    Sep 19 '20 at 19:49
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    @Mrt Is that something people say? I haven't come across it, and "in east Canada" gets a very low rating from NGrams ( books.google.com/ngrams/… ). I'd expect "eastern Canada", which is also the name of the Wikipedia article ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Canada ).
    – rjpond
    Sep 19 '20 at 19:52

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