I found a sentence: "The children had smeared peanut butter all over the sofa.".
Does "all" in the sentence mean all the sofa or all the butter?
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It's referring to the sofa. 'All over' is often used as a set phrase. One common meaning is 'covering a large amount of the surface area of something'. It's a somewhat hyperbolic phrase, since it does not literally mean 'all'. For example:
There are crumbs all over the floor. (=there are a lot of crumbs on the floor)
There is graffiti all over the wall. (=there is graffiti covering large parts of the wall)
People all over the world are in lockdown. (=people in many parts of the world are in lockdown)