1
  1. to demand or ask for as rightfully belonging or due to one; assert one's right to (a title, accomplishment, etc. that should be recognized)

This is from the definitions for 'claim' on Collins Dictionary but why 'rightfully belonging'? Why not 'rightful belonging'?

My grammar book does say an adverb modifies a noun but I think it's rare. Could you give me some examples where an adverb is preferred over an adjective to modify a noun?

3

Belonging in this sentence is not employed as a nominal but as an adjectival; here are some parallel constructions:

... to demand as appropriate ... I demand it because it is appropriate.
... to demand as desirable ... I demand it because it is desirable.
... to demand as required ... I demand it because it is required.

Consequently it requires an adverbial modifier.

0

Rightfully belonging

is the same as

Belonging rightfully

Whereas

Belonging rightful

makes no sense.

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