I don't know that there's a common word for precisely what you describe. But I think conversant is a decent choice, especially if we're talking about a resume. You've cited a definition that kind of applies broadly and figuratively, e.g. I'm conversant in statistics (= I am knowledgeable in/familiar with/have experience with statistics).
However, when it comes to language and speaking, I think there's a slightly different usage. I was only able to quickly find one dictionary with this distinction (#2):
1 formal having knowledge or experience of something
Staff members are conversant with the issues.
2 American English able to hold a conversation in a foreign language, but not able to speak it perfectly
Kim was conversant in Russian.
Now, this does not exactly suggest that you understand everything in that language perfectly (like you're requesting). We simply understand that you know enough to hold a conversation. Regarding the literacy aspect, I think the reader might infer that you lack reading and writing skills in that language because I feel like this is how the word is often used. Otherwise, you could've chosen a different word, like proficient, intermediate, or advanced. We would take that to mean that you have some respective capacity in speaking/listening and reading/writing (also see link #2 below).
Conversational seems like another decent choice for similar reasons (also see link #1 below).
Anyway, when it comes to resumes, you a have bit of leeway in how you communicate. "Spanish (speaking and comprehension only)" is understandable. "Only" seems superfluous as you typically state what you do have in a resume, not what you don't have. You could also switch "comprehension" with "listening" (common, explicit).
Whether or not this is "good" (or "bad") I am not trying to address (primarily opinion based/off-topic). Instead, here are a couple of resources from Indeed that contain common vocabulary and examples on this matter. I've also included a couple of examples here for reference. The point is that, in a resume, you can mix and match however you like to communicate your specific situation.
Here is a template you can use when listing languages in their own section:
- Fluent in [language] and [language]
- Proficient in [language] reading and writing
- Conversant in [language]
- [number] years of high school and college [language] education
- Certificate in conversational [language]
Here are a few examples of how you could list your language levels:
- Bilingual - English and Spanish
- Fluent in English and Spanish, conversant in Italian
- Interned in Spain for two years after graduation
- Four years of high school and college Japanese education
- Certificate in conversational Spanish from University of Tampa
(How to List Language Levels on Your Resume)
How to List Language Levels on Your Resume
How to Include Language Skills on Your Resume (With Examples)
I'm sure you can find dozens more resources online.