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Each student has a dedicated tutor.
Students have a dedicated tutor.

Do the two sentences have the same meaning? Does the second sentence mean all students have only one tutor?

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The first sentence is clear in one sense: it means that each student has been assigned to a tutor. The only difficulty is that the word 'dedicated' can mean one of three things: the first possibility is that the tutor has specific responsibility for the education, and possibly the pastoral care, of each of several students assigned to them (this would be the normal interpretation); the second possibility is that each student has a tutor assigned only to them (this is extremely unlikely because almost all educational establishments have more students than teaching staff) and thirdly that the tutor to whom the student has been assigned is dedicated to the job, regardless of the responsibilities placed upon them.

The second sentence is, in fact, very ambiguous. One possible interpretation is similar to the last interpretation above, that is there is one tutor for all the students who is dedicated to the job (this could be taken to mean that all the other tutors couldn't care less). Another possibility is that some of the students are assigned to a specific tutor but that others are not (it does not say 'all students' which would eliminate this possibility). The third possibility is that the sentence should be interpreted in the same (normal) way as the first interpretation above, that is that each student is assigned to a tutor who has direct reponsibility for them but that tutor has more than one student to look after.

In normal use (assuming that the normal interpretation is correct) most people would read both sentences in that way but the first one expresses the the concept more clearly and with less ambiguity.

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The first sentence is obviously referring to the fact that every student has an individual tutor.

However, the second sentence is a bit unclearer but the logical way to interpret it would be, that the students have one dedicated tutor

The difference is, in the first sentence it is stating every student has a tutor. The second sentence excludes every so it is not the same.

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