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Do these have the same meaning:

  1. Their perspective about me is...../ of me is.....

  2. The perspective of theirs about me is...../ of me is.....

  1. His book was on the table yesterday.

  2. The book of his was on the table yesterday.

  1. My name is Guri.

  2. Guri is the name of mine.

  1. Students' number present here is 20.

  2. Number of students present here is 20.

  1. His mistreatment is bad.
  2. Mistreatment of his is bad.

And more sentences with structures like these. Could you specify the reason and the grammar rule. Thank you.

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There are so many questions there, I fear I may miss some.

First, prepositions are hard: they follow few if any easily articulated rules. When you are talking about the perspective held by a person, you can then say

the perspective of Ms. X

When you are talking about what the perspective concerns, then you can say

Ms. X's perspective on Brexit

or

Ms. X's perspective about Brexit

I prefer the first, but I am not sure I can articulate a reason for that preference.

Second, With respect to your examples 3/4, 5/6, and 9/10, #3, #5, and #9 are idiomatic, but #4, #6, and #10 are not. What is the reason?

As you undoubtedly know, both "the man's horse" and the "horse of the man" are grammatical and mean the same thing. However, "the man's horse" is preferred unless there is a reason to use the alternate construction.

The horse of the man is brown

is far less common than

The man's horse is brown.

However, there can be circumstances where the alternate construction is not merely preferred but required.

The horse of the man wearing the red hat

In any case, you frequently do have a choice of how to show possession with respect to nouns. It is, however, not at all idiomatic to replace a possessive determiner like "my" with "of" plus the corresponding possessive pronoun such as "mine."

Third, #7 is quite wrong. "Number of" is a set phrase.

You could use the noun "number"

The number of students present here is twenty.

Notice that the subject is the singular noun "number." Or you could use the plural verb

The students present here number twenty.

Fourth, your example #9 is grammatical and perhaps idiomatic, but without any context, it seems awkward. What sounds more natural is

He is badly mistreated.

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  • Thank you very much for your helpful answer, it was really bothering me and now I am pretty clear about it. Thank you so much. :) – Guri Dec 8 '20 at 5:39

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