The short answer is that "all" refers to the whole of something (if uncountable):
I've drunk all the water from this glass.
or the whole of a collection of things (if countable):
I know all the students in this class.
and "any" refers to some amount of something (if uncountable):
I've drunk some water from this glass.
or one or more things of a collection of things (if countable):
I know some students in this class.
I imagine the reason that makes the example:
There was something false in all this.
confusing is that "some" and "all" appear in the same sentence.
To dispel the confusion, one has to understand that "all this" and "something false" do not refer to the same thing.
Let's put the example into some context. Imagine, for instance, that I'm a mathematician that has written a proof for some impossible theorem. In this context, "all this" means "the proof", that is, the whole chain of reasonings that led me to the impossible theorem. "Something false" is the part of the proof, that is, the reasoning or reasonings in the proof that are wrong and that led me to a wrong conclusion.
One could also ask whether it's possible to use "any" in the example (since "something false" refers to some amount of a something).
The answer is yes, but bearing in mind that "some" is used in affirmative statements, and "any" is used in negative statements and questions. For example:
There wasn't anything false in all this.
Was there anything false in all this?