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But in a city where people are used to cold winters, life carries on as usual.

Although I can't clearly comprehend this construction, I understand it intuitively, but I want to read something about the rule, so give me something about it, please, if you can.

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I've found a few similar examples from the internet:

  • But in a time where our mental health is being challenged daily, the question “How are you?” may be too stale.

[Today.com; 2020]

  • ... but in a time where stone, and not paper, was the writing material of choice, the straight, simple lines of a runic alphabet were by far the easiest form of record ....

[Joanne Harris; Runes

  • But in a country where we have had parliamentary democracy, uninterrupted by invasion, revolution, or tyranny for over 300 years, it is difficult to strike a real chord with most people outside the legal world when talking about the rule of law.

[UK Supreme Court]

  • But in a situation where we must provide both modes of instruction simultaneously, this is just not feasible at this time.

[Tuscaloosa CSS]

Each paraphrases as 'But in a state / place / time where A is true, B is the case.'

The usual thrust is that B must necessarily (or very likely) be the case as a consequence of A obtaining. This is certainly true in the above four examples. But the example in the question is the subtler reading:

But in spite of A being true, B is nevertheless the case.

The use of 'be used to' (= be accustomed to, with the implication of being able to handle) can be easily looked up in any reasonable dictionary.

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