Attrition and retirement are not synonyms. Attrition is a gradual decrease in numbers. Retirement is an act of leaving the workforce, often with a stipend. Retirements are one way that attrition can occur, but not the only way, and the two words are not synonyms.
that will happen through an attrition of retirement and death
means that something (perhaps a mindset change, or change in corporate culture) will happen after the current workforce is replaced, as they either "retire or expire."
I believe the speaker means:
that will happen through an attrition caused by retirement and death
It's not a common use of the preposition of, but it's not unprecedented. For example:
Wow, there are a lot of empty desks in this office. What's going on?
Oh, we've recently been hit with a steady wave of retirements. We'll be hiring replacements soon.