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What is the reason behind some words not having some prepositions and are assumed?

For example:

I am home

is a perfectly valid sentence meaning, one has reached home, but if someone completely noob to English come across this sentence, they will probably think:

"I am home", how can a person be a home?

Also, see these sentences:

I go home

Please come here

Go there and purchase your tickets

As you can see, some words like here, there, home don't accept "to" before them.

I go to home

is wrong I suppose.

So, why do certain words don't take "to" infinitive or prepositions before them?

  • You simply have to learn which prepositions follow which verbs and what they mean. Lists of phrasal verbs are easily available, for instance and you can learn them. Each preposition has a different meaning. Some phrases won't have a preposition (I go home/shopping), others will (I go to school), you just have to learn them. As to "why" it's just the way the language is, things like that occur in almost every language. – Laure Jun 28 '14 at 14:34
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    I am home does not mean I'm a home and nobody will understand I am home as anyone saying they are a home. The use of the indefinite article a changes the nature of the word "home". In "I am home" home is an adverb. In "I am a home", home is used as a noun. Saying "I am a home" on its own, although correct grammatically, sounds strange. But it's fine as soon as we qualify the home, for instance you can imagine an advert for a house saying "I'm a nice home for a family" or "I'm a home for your holidays". – Laure Jun 28 '14 at 14:47
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You should notice that in all the sentences you wrote and assumed that the preposition is missing, the prepositions are not missing. This is in accordance with the grammar rule. You see before home, here, there, prepositions are missing, because home, here and there are adverbs. And therefore we don't need a preposition before an adverb.

You can also check this link

Hope this helps.

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