Should I say, for example, '1 of 1 son or 3 daughters is tall' to say I have 4 children and a son is tall
('of' doesn't indicate a part of a whole but amount)
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Don't try and pack multiple ideas in one clause. Here you telling us the number of children in your family AND the height of your son. Those are two different ideas. So communicate them in two sentences.
I have one son and three daughters. My son is tall.
This follows the "end weight" principle of longer phrases at the end of sentences.
You can say
One of my four children is tall.
But don't try to overload the "four children" part. Note that I prefer two write small numbers as words. Don't say
*One of my one son and three daughters is tall *
Because it is confusing, it doesn't follow the "end weight" principle.