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This question may sounds a little bit weird. I am asking of variants as tense, grammatical or another meaning of "have(v1, v2, v3, been, to, gerund), had(v1, v2, v3, been, to, gerund), having(v1, v2, v3, been, to, gerund)". Its bothering to find in fragmental and hard to understand. So I am confused. Which ones are true as grammatical and tense?

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  • I'm not sure what you're asking, but all forms of have can be used to form perfect (or pseudo-perfect, the "past infinitive"): He has eaten, they have eaten, he had eaten, he hasn't eaten, they haven't eaten, he hadn't eaten, having eaten, to have eaten. Also modals, he could have eaten, he will have eaten. Does that answer your question, or are you asking something else? – Colin Fine Jan 30 at 23:43
  • Okay these are past participle, how about another's I have written? Have, had, having with v1, v2, to, been, gerund. I hope I have explained. – user123960 Jan 31 at 8:56
  • If any part of have governs a verb, that verb is always past participle, as in my examples above. Have eat, have eats, have ate, have eating are all ungrammatical. – Colin Fine Jan 31 at 15:50
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There are four distinct forms of "have":

  • the plain form "have"
  • the 3rd person singular present "has"
  • "had"
  • "having"

The form "have" serves as:

  • the bare infinitive (and, when preceded by "to", the full or marked infinitive)
  • the 1st and 2nd person singular, and plural of all persons
  • the subjunctive
  • the imperative

"Had" doubles up as:

  • Past tense
  • Past participle

"Having" is:

  • Present participle
  • Gerund

So the number of forms depends how you count them.

(There are also archaisms such as "hast".)

Addendum. You have asked which of the following combinations are valid. V1, V2 and V3 are used in some EFL/ESL material to refer to the plain form of the verb, the simple past, and the past participle respectively. In the case of "have", the simple past and past participle are identical, although "have had" is only grammatically correct if you interpret "had" as a past participle, not if you interpret it as a simple past.

  • have + v3 - "have had", "have seen", "have done", etc. - correct

  • have + v2 - *"have had", *"had saw", *"had did" - not correct if you interpret "had" as v2 (and "saw", "did" are always v2)

  • have + v1 - *"have have", *"have see", *"have do" - not correct

  • have + to - "have to have", "have to see", "have to do" - correct (= must)

  • have + ing form - "have having", "have seeing", "have doing" - possible where the -ing form is a gerund or noun, e.g. "I have swimming on my agenda for today"

  • have been + v3 - "have been had", "have been seen", "have been done" - correct

  • have been + v2 - not correct

  • have been + v1 - *"have been have", *"have been see" - not correct

  • have been + to - "have been to have", "have been to see", "have been to do" - correct

  • have been + ing form - "have been having", "have been seeing", "have been doing" - correct

  • had + v3 - "had had", "had seen", "had done" - correct - past perfect

  • had + v2 - not correct

  • had + v1 - *"had have", *"had see" - not correct (or dialectal in the case of "had have")

  • had + to - "had to have", "had to see", "had to do" - correct (= needed to, must)

  • had + ing form - "had having", "had seeing", "had doing" - rare but possible where the -ing form is a gerund or noun, e.g. "I had swimming on my to-do list"

  • had been + v3 - "had been had", "had been seen", "had been done" - correct

  • had been + v2 - not correct

  • had been + v1 - *"had been have", "had been see", "had been do" - not correct

  • had been + to - "had been to have", "had been to see", "had been to do" - correct

  • had been + ing form - "had been having", "had been seeing", "had been doing" - correct

  • having + v3 - "having had", "having seen", "having done" - correct

  • having + v2 - not correct

  • having + v1 - *"having have", "having see", "having do" - not correct

  • having + to - "having to have", "having to see", "having to do" - correct

  • having + ing form - "having having", "having seeing", "having doing" - rare, but possible ("Having watching TV as a hobby is fairly common" - awkward wording, but grammatically correct)

  • having been + v3 - "having been had", "having been seen", "having been done" - correct

  • having been + v2 - not correct

  • having been + v1 - not correct

  • having been + to - correct

  • having been + ing form - correct

Instances of "have" + ing and "had" + ing, where the -ing form is a noun or gerund, are simply uses of the simple present and simple past respectively, whereas "I have been +ing" (for example) is a progressive perfect. So we would not count "I have +ing" (as in "I have swimming this afternoon") as a separate verb form or distinct construction.

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  • For many native speakers there are two more forms of the verb - the ones signifying obligation, where the pronunciation (but not usually the orthography) changes, as in I hat to work from home during lockdown, but my wife didn't haff to. I can't think of any "natural" contexts where the continuous form haffing might be used, though. – FumbleFingers Jan 31 at 14:46
  • Thanks for your clear explaining. But I have still confused points. Doesn't "have" have past participle? Doesn't "had" have an imperative? Doesn't "having" have past participle? Thats all the combinations I am asking. – user123960 Jan 31 at 16:02
  • Had is the past participle, and having is the present participle, of to have. The imperative of to have is have (as in "Have a good time!" – Kate Bunting Jan 31 at 17:29
  • "Have" has a past participle ("had") - I said so. As for the imperative, it's "have" - but there is no past imperative (so no imperative for "had"). Each English verb only has one imperative form and it is always identical to the bare infinitive. I am not completely sure what your "combinations" file means, though, I'm afraid. – rjpond Jan 31 at 22:16
  • I'm not sure named as combinations but I meant like formulas. For example to be + v3 = passive voice. There are have formulas but there is no names or tenses. This file what I am asking exactly. – user123960 Feb 1 at 6:11

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