How to place a Participle, before the word (noun, adjective,adverb) which is modified by it or after that word. As participle can work like an adjective and an Adverb for modifying.

a. He saw a burning train(here participle is before the noun).

b. The shouting and joy expressed by all is past imagination(here expressed comes after Joy).

c. I have all the qualifications required for the exams(here required comes after qualifications).

d. I have all the required qualifications for the exams.

e. The woman watched the cat creeping toward the bird.

And, is there any difference between the meaning of C and D?

  • 1
    For most purposes, c and d are equivalent and interchangeable (but c is much more common). Arguably sometimes (ever so slightly "marked") d might imply they are more "universally known, standard" requirements. Commented Feb 2, 2021 at 15:26
  • 1
    I saw a train burning places more emphasis on the action (what the train was doing), where I saw a burning train focuses more on the state, condition of the train. But for most purposes they're just different ways of saying the same thing. Commented Feb 2, 2021 at 15:30
  • A guy told me that in 'I saw a burning train' burning is an adjective...and in 'I saw a train burning' , train burning here is written in a noun- verb formation. But even if it came after the noun , it is ultimately an adjective ? I've understood that their placement is just based on what thing a person wants to emphasise.
    – RADS
    Commented Feb 3, 2021 at 2:19
  • If I compare 1: I saw a galloping unicorn to 2: I saw a unicorn galloping, I'd have to say the first version was very slightly "weird". More information might be available from the full context, but if I really had nothing else to go on I'd probably assume that version #1 carried the implication [some] unicorns rarely / can't gallop. Commented Feb 3, 2021 at 13:50


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