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So the book is partly written in archaic English, the dialogs mainly. While it is by the most part understandable in context, there are some parts still unclear for me, for example:

”That doth remind me of the races but yesterday," called out another listener.

What’s the meaning of the word ‘but’ in this context?

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"Only yesterday" or "just yesterday".

That is, the speaker is reminded of the races that took place just yesterday, not a long time ago.

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It means "That reminds me of the races which happened just yesterday".

The sentence is somewhat awkward because "but" is usually attached to a verb:

"She left but two hours ago."
"It is but eight o'clock."

In ”That doth remind me of the races but yesterday," but tries to attach itself to the verb remind.

It would be more idiomatic if it said "...the races held but yesterday."

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