I have been wondering about the last sentence of the text in the picture. The picture is here because you probably need to know the context. The sentence is as follows:

Researchers wrote/had written the note 132 years earlier.

I have no idea if it's past simple or past perfect, could anyone help me and explain it to me?

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As with many instances where the past perfect is possible, the past tense is also possible.

In this case the test writer probably want you to use "had written". The narrative is set in the time that the Illman family found the bottle. The writing of the note occured before that time so "had written" is possible.

But "wrote" is not incorrect; 132 years ago is still "past". It would just mean that the time of the narrative had skipped back 132 years. Such time skips are bad essay style, but not incorrect grammar. If you want to use "wrote" you should also start a new paragraph at that point since a new time setting deserves a new paragraph.

Similarly, in the title "had thrown" is probably intended. But in title grammar, which isn't a narrative, present tense is common. So perhaps "find" and "throw" are intended. Or "have found" and "threw". All are possible.

The difficulty with any "pick the correct tense" questions is that tenses carry meaning. In general you can't work out the tense from the context.

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