Obviously in OP's exact context there's no scope for any difference in meaning depending on whether (optional) preposition off is included or not.
But in other contexts, to throw someone off is often "short for" ...off the scent - it means to mislead, deceive someone who's trying to find something out. Whereas the prepositionless version normally just mean to confuse, destabilise, disorient (someone who wasn't necessarily seeking anything anyway).
Note that with or without the preposition, this question concerns the metaphorical usage. But there's also the literal sense - again, with off being entirely optional...
The badly-trained horse threw the rider [off]
...where we can safely ignore the idea of the horse misleading the rider - so as with OP's example, there's only one possible interpretation (the rider was literally "bucked" right out of his saddle, and thrown to the ground).