There are structural reasons for this. Many states were created by colonial powers, artificially uniting different ethnicities under one common roof, a problem returned to in the next paragraph. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast to many in Asia, lack the cultural heritage of a state overarching familial and clan structures (e.g. Wimmer 2018). Top-down state- and nation-building after the end of European colonisation was a moderate success: central governments not penetrating their peripheries, abuse of political power, and widespread corruption are keywords associated with the phenomenon of unsuccessful or even ‘failed states’. Failed states, however, may be the wrong term and just an episode. European countries needed centuries for their nation-building and were not exposed to the global stress of ever faster socio-economic modernisation. Seeking to improve the political structures of developing countries in the long run, decentralisation or and federalisation have become important concepts for developing agencies (Kälin 1999; Litvack et al. 1998; Linder 2002).
-Swiss Democracy by Wolf Linder
I have a question about the last sentence of this paragraph and particularly about the word "developing agencies".
Which variant is true for the last sentence
a) decentralisation have become important concept by seeking to improve ...
b) seeking, decentralisation and federalisation have become ...
- What does the author refer to by saying "developing agencies"? To developing countries by other word? Or something else? Because I couldn't find any "political" definition for this term.