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Q1. I saw this dialogue in a book:

A: "Mind if I see your notebook?"

B: "Sure."

In this context, "Sure" was used to mean "I don't mind, go ahead." Right? But in other contexts, "Sure" means "Of course", "Yes", right? So in the dialogue, isn't the "Sure" changed to "Sure not(?)" or "Of course not"? In other words, why do you use 'Sure' as a meaning of permission in the context of the dialogue above?

Q2. "Would you mind opening the window?" means "Would you mind your(or you) opening the window",or "Will you open the window for me", right?

But can the sentence be also used to mean "Would you mind my(or me) opening the window",or "Do you mind if I open the window"?

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    The logical reply to "[Do you] mind if I see your notebook?" would be "Not at all" or "No - go ahead", but I suppose some people instinctively avoid giving a negative answer to what is in reality a request for permission. "Sure" answers the sense of the question rather than the actual words. Mar 4 at 13:40
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    Some of it is in the tone of voice. I have occasionally known people to hesitate - unsure whether they have been given permission or not - if their "Do you mind ..." question is answered with a simple "No". It is better to answer "I don't mind", "No problem", or "Go ahead". ("Sure" works, too.) It is also better to avoid answering with a simple "Yes" when objecting to the request.
    – rjpond
    Mar 4 at 13:52
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    No! You can't Use Mind opening the window? to mean Do you mind if I open the window? Reason being that initial mind there is always "short for" Do / Will you mind..., and you can't switch the "subject" from you to I in such constructions. Mar 4 at 17:37
  • Ms. Kate Bunting, Your explanation is perfectly perfect. Thank you. And Mr. rjppond, that's perfectly right. You're so considerate. Thank you. And Mr. FumbleFingers, you couldn't be clearer. Your answer is very very clear to me. Thank you. To all of you, I give my thanks.:)
    – mystery
    Mar 5 at 0:20
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Q1: Yes, in this context, "sure" means "I do not mind; go right ahead." This is one of the many weird things about English usage. "Sure, not," is a phrase I've never read or heard. With that said, yes, people often say "Of course not," to mean the same thing.

Q2: You are correct that this is what it means, for the first part. For the second part, "Would you mind opening the window" is a soft, polite way to ask the other person to open the window.

Hope that helps!

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    "Would you mind..." is soft and polite only if spoken in a soft and polite tone. It can be very harsh if spoken with a harsh tone. This fits with rjpond's comment: the tone of the response ("sure") is what allows us to overcome the logical inconsistency and recognize it as an agreement to do the thing requested.
    – TypeIA
    Mar 4 at 14:31
  • Of course you can be sarcastic with anything you say. I'm talking about usual usage here. The words are intended to cushion the blow of someone asking you to do something. Mar 4 at 14:58
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    Mr. TypeIA, thank you for your time and kind comment. And Mr. FeliniusRex, you are the first answerer to my question. Thank you for your concern. I accept your answer. It's very helpful for me.
    – mystery
    Mar 5 at 0:27

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