Q. What conjunction or expression would you recommend for the words "As such" in the following passage? (I cant' exactly figure out the meaning of it even though I looked up the dictionary.)

The desire for written records has always accompanied economic activity, since transactions are meaningless unless you can clearly keep track of who owns what. As such, early human writing is dominated by wheeling and dealing: a collection of bets, bills, and contracts.

  • I don't follow you. What do you mean by "recommendable conjunction"?.
    – BillJ
    Commented Mar 5, 2021 at 8:05
  • Sorry, I'm not a native speaker, so often I'm not sure if I'm saying something correct in English, either. What I tried to mean was that: "What other words would you recommend for me concerning the phrase "As such' because I can't get the meaning of "As such"? What about you? What would you recommend for me, Mr. BillJ?
    – mystery
    Commented Mar 5, 2021 at 9:10

1 Answer 1


It is simply careless writing. The probable meaning is “consequently.” What might have been in the author’s mind is something like

As such [economic activity always gives rise to written records, it is not at all surprising that] early human writing...

That longer statement is clearly equivalent in intent to “consequently,” but it is verbose and merely repeats the substance of the previous sentence. Truncating it to “as such” eliminates the verbosity and repetition but also eliminates any meaning.

  • Mr. Jeff, your answer saved me, Thank you so much:)
    – mystery
    Commented Mar 5, 2021 at 6:24
  • You are welcome. Commented Mar 5, 2021 at 11:52

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