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From a psychiatric questionnaire:

What sort of things do you do if you are feeling sad, angry, or hurt?

Does "feeling hurt" here implies "your feelings have been hurt by someone", or can it imply "feeling hurt" for a reason not related to any actions of another person?

I'm translating this questionnaire into Russian and in Russian there is a way to translate this as "hurt by somebody" (insulted) or just "feeling pain in one's soul" (could be not related to any actions of other persons).

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Not necessarily. For instance, person X could be hurt by the injustice they are facing in this world; they could be hurt by the fact that world's doom is inescapably imminent due to climate change, causing agony. I would play it safe and not generalize.

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I agree with @LinShao's answer but would like to elaborate. In the expression "to feel hurt" the word "hurt" refers to emotional pain, to pain in one's heart. It does not mean "a cause of injury or damage" as it does in other contexts. Nor is it a verb meaning "to cause harm or pain to another".

Most often when this expression is used the feeling of hurt is caused by the behavior of others, but it does not necessarily refer to a specific offense. The person experiencing such hurt may simply see a pattern of behavior which suggests to him that he is unloved or underappreciated.

I believe the closest Russian equivalent would be "огорчение", a bitterness without rancor. I would avoid "обижаться", to become offended, because 1) it suggests a discrete (concrete) cause, and 2) it could be misinterpreted as referring to a readiness to take offense.

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