Suppose I am reading a book and a friend calls me and asks what I am doing.
Can I answer:"I am reading a book" even though I have stopped reading for the moment to answer the phone,
or should I say: "I was reading a book"?
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Like Colleen said, in spoken English you can say whichever makes sense to you or feels right in the moment. Either response would be perfectly natural.
It might be a little more common to say "I'm reading a book," as that is the action you were just doing and will (presumably) return to after the call ends. But if you keep getting interrupted, and you are getting annoyed about it and want to express your annoyance, you might say "Well, I was reading a book..." with emphasis on "was" to make it clear that you aren't right at this moment reading. That would be rather rude though. Simply saying "I was reading a book" with no special emphasis would not be rude.