What is the precise meaning of the sentence? What does ‘rippled outward’ means in the bold sentence? Does buckling means throwing here? And, if so, then how an earthquake can buckle the earth’s crust into the air?
The first effect was to bury a crater almost forty kilometers deep into the earth’s crust, simultaneously ejecting some one hundred cubic kilometers of earth into the atmosphere in a twenty-thousand-degree fireball that reached into space. All living things within several hundred kilometers were simply vaporized. Earthquakes of magnitude 12 or 13 rippled outward from the impact, violently buckling the earth’s crust hundreds of meters into the air. This seismic activity triggered a massive tsunami, perhaps a kilometer high, that swept across the Gulf of Mexico and struck the coastline with enough force to travel twenty kilometers inland.