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  1. They have liked the idea of me starting my own business.

  2. I've liked the song since my childhood.

  3. I've been liking the song since my childhood.

Q1) I think sentence (3) is not absolutely correct because it uses the stative verb "like" in progressive form. So, the present perfect tense (sentence (2)) would be used to convey the meaning of sentence (3). Am I right?

Q2) Does sentence (1) suggest they have recently liked the idea (as in "I have done the homework"), or does it suggest they have continuously liked the idea and will continue to like it, the same way as sentence (2)?

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These perfect forms are possible but not common with the verb "like". As you note, "like" is a stative verb, so one use of the present perfect: experience of an action resulting in a present state, is not idiomatic.

So you can say "I've seen Mt Everest" (meaning "I saw it sometime in the past but not now"), but not usually "I've liked the song". Instead you should say "I used to like the song." So (1) is not idiomatic. You can use a phrase like "start to like" as

They've started to like the idea of me starting my own business.

It suggests "recently" but you can make that explicit by adding the adverb "They've recently started..."

You can use the present perfect with a "since" phrase. It is correct to say "I've liked the song since Monday.", meaning I started to like it on Monday and I still like it. So (2) is correct and idiomatic

Also (3) is not idiomatic, for the reasons you give.

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