- I woke up tired.
- I grew up rich.
Can someone explain the position and functions of the adjectives tired, rich, poor in these sentences? Aren't adjectives supposed to always precede or succeed a noun and affect the meaning of it, not verbs?
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The adjectives following the phrasal verbs (linking verbs, specifically) in your two sentences are what are called subject complement in grammar: they describe the subject.
The definition of an adjective isn't confined to a POS modifying a noun phrase. Adjectives come in various avatars. When an adjective describes the object of a sentence, it is called an object complement. vain, an adjective for example, is the object complement of the sentence Success made him vain, where it describes the object of the sentence.
The verbs in your examples are acting as copular verbs, connecting the subjects to adjectives that are called subject complements.
The are analogous to simpler examples:
He is healthy.
They are ready.
The building seems beautiful.
In all these examples, an adjective is coupled to the subject by a verb acting as a copula. So, adjectives change the meaning of a noun, but they don't always have to be adjacent to them.
Correct me if I'm wrong. But if I'm not mistaken, The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (CGEL) calls these predicative adjuncts. Other examples are such as:
They look even more fantastic naked
They served us our coffee black
They are not predicative complements. A predicative complement is generally obligatory and has to be licensed by a verb, eg:
He talked himself hoarse
A predicative adjunct is optional and depictive.