This includes ensuring that reasonable care is taken to prevent actors to do not caused harm.

I just don't understand is using Gerund here?

  • 2
    Where did you find this sentence? The last part is totally ungrammatical. Yes, ensuring is a gerund. Apr 25, 2021 at 15:36
  • [Correction: I just don't understand how a gerund or the gerund is used here.]
    – Lambie
    Apr 25, 2021 at 16:02

1 Answer 1


The verb "include" has a direct object. It should be followed by a noun phrase or similar:

This drink includes sugar.

But a process might include several actions, and a natural way to refer to action is to use the gerund form

Restoring a table includes stripping the old paint, sanding the wood smooth, and repainting.

In my example some of the gerunds have their own objects. "The old paint" is the object of "stripping".

In your example the object of "ensuring" is the subordinate clause headed by "that".

There is an error later in the sentence. It is not clear if you mean "prevent actors from causing harm" or "prevent actors from being harmed"

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .