So I mean there are too many words which is multiple meaning in English. And these sentences are able to vary by sentence. For example:
The house by the tree.
"by" means "next to" or "near"
This book was written by a popular author.
"by" means "product of".
What does these words mean when we use them by alone? When does "by, as, about, so" mean different? What is the basic meanings of these words?