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Yes, it did affect the yearly kernel summit last year (and this year is still up in the air), and most conferences got cancelled or turned virtual.

I'd like to know when should I use "turn" over "turn into" on the phrase cited above and why?

Could I even use "turn into"? Because I'm not sure too.

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You cannot use turned into in that sentence.

turn adjective means something like "become":

When he saw the blood, he turned pale.

turn into noun means something like "change into a different thing":

Caterpillars turn into butterflies.

So in this sentence, we know that we have to use turn and not turn into, because virtual is an adjective. We could rephrase it to use turn into and a noun phrase, like

Conferences got turned into virtual events

but usually "turn into" implies becoming a different thing, and in this case it seems less fluent because a virtual conference is still a conference.

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Turn into is followed by a noun phrase, so turn into virtual would not be grammatical.

Turn may be followed by an adjective; but not all adjectives work. I would find turn virtual odd in most contexts.

But note that this example is not turn (into) but get turned (into). This is passive, and it works here because it implies there is somebody doing the "turning", whereas intransitive turn implies that something changes of its own accord.

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