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Sentence:

Especially those living in remote areas, might have never been to the capital.

Question 1: Does this sentence lack a subject? if so, why "those" can't be regarded as a subject?

Question 2: If I replace "especially" with "in particular", will it be different?

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    It isn't a complete sentence, and does lack a subject. I would expect the sentence to begin with a statement about the people of a country, which applies especially to those living in remote areas, who might never have been to the capital. The same applies if you replace especially with in particular. – Kate Bunting May 2 at 7:41
  • Thank you so much.My translation teacher told me if it replace especially with in particular,it will be right,but I can't really understand what she said.I thought they have similar function.I had written:especially for those people who lived in remote areas,they had never been to the capital.But I am still confused by "why thoes can not be regarded as a subject directly,if we take especially as an adverb? – yaoyaoshaw May 2 at 7:51
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    Yes, especially and in particular mean the same thing - I didn't mean to imply otherwise. But if you begin a sentence with especially, it looks as though there is something missing. I would suggest "Those people living in remote areas, especially/in particular, may never have been to the capital." – Kate Bunting May 2 at 8:06
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    @KateBunting First of all the comma is not needed, and there are objections in style guides as to starting a sentence with "especially", when it emphasises the subject. But if we avoid those, it can be deemed as a complete sentence, with its subject explicitly mentioned. – Man_From_India May 2 at 11:12

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