I am trying to say the sentence :

how long have you lived in the US

My pronunciation of "lived in" feels so heavy handed compared to this audio recording.

I wonder, is the d flapped? It should be flapped because it is between two vowels. In the above recording, are there other sounds that are being dropped?

  • 2
    The 'd' in "lived" is generally pronounced with the [t] sound. I don't hear a flap at all. – user178049 May 7 at 11:18
  • 1
    @user178049: with a [t]?! – Void May 7 at 11:48
  • @Void Actually I wanted to write /t/, but it felt weird to say "a /t/ sound" because /t/ is not a sound. But are you implying that it is not a /t/. – user178049 May 7 at 12:00
  • 1
    @user178049: Well, I've never heard 'lived' pronounced with a [t]. – Void May 7 at 12:02
  • @Void I just confirmed.. Yes it is /d/. I was mistaken. However, when pronounced in isolation and when it is followed by a silence, it could be /t/ due to a final-obstruent devoicing. – user178049 May 7 at 12:08

Flapping occurs when the 't' or 'd' is in an unstressed syllable and flanked by vowels ('better' [bɛɾɚ]). The 'd' in lived in isn't flapped because it's preceded by a 'v' which blocks flapping: /ˈlɪvd.ɪn/

  • Thanks, is any other sound dropped? Is very difficult for me to pronounce "lived in the", this is my version: dropbox.com/s/4buxa8x8hiz8hsh/SER_Unit2_how-long-have.m4a?dl=0 – Emy May 7 at 11:50
  • It is also worth mentioning that the realization may vary. For example the "d" in "loved you" may be pronounced as [dʒ]. – user178049 May 7 at 11:53
  • 1
    @Emy: You're dropping the 'd' in 'lived'. You need to practise pronouncing the /-vd/ cluster. :) – Void May 7 at 11:57
  • @Void, thanks, you see, if I put the "d" in, it does not sound as in the original recording: dropbox.com/s/9u2y8g194gr428p/SER_Unit2_how-long-have2.m4a?dl=0 – Emy May 7 at 12:03
  • 1
    @Emy: Because the original speaker seems to be a native speaker of American English. You need practice to achieve that pronunciation. :P English consonant clusters are harder to pronounce than those of many other languages – Void May 7 at 12:10

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.