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I am trying to say the sentence :

how long have you lived in the US

My pronunciation of "lived in" feels so heavy handed compared to this audio recording.

I wonder, is the d flapped? It should be flapped because it is between two vowels. In the above recording, are there other sounds that are being dropped?

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    The 'd' in "lived" is generally pronounced with the [t] sound. I don't hear a flap at all. – user178049 May 7 at 11:18
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    @user178049: with a [t]?! – Void May 7 at 11:48
  • @Void Actually I wanted to write /t/, but it felt weird to say "a /t/ sound" because /t/ is not a sound. But are you implying that it is not a /t/. – user178049 May 7 at 12:00
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    @user178049: Well, I've never heard 'lived' pronounced with a [t]. – Void May 7 at 12:02
  • @Void I just confirmed.. Yes it is /d/. I was mistaken. However, when pronounced in isolation and when it is followed by a silence, it could be /t/ due to a final-obstruent devoicing. – user178049 May 7 at 12:08
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Flapping occurs when the 't' or 'd' is in an unstressed syllable and flanked by vowels ('better' [bɛɾɚ]). The 'd' in lived in isn't flapped because it's preceded by a 'v' which blocks flapping: /ˈlɪvd.ɪn/

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  • Thanks, is any other sound dropped? Is very difficult for me to pronounce "lived in the", this is my version: dropbox.com/s/4buxa8x8hiz8hsh/SER_Unit2_how-long-have.m4a?dl=0 – Emy May 7 at 11:50
  • It is also worth mentioning that the realization may vary. For example the "d" in "loved you" may be pronounced as [dʒ]. – user178049 May 7 at 11:53
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    @Emy: You're dropping the 'd' in 'lived'. You need to practise pronouncing the /-vd/ cluster. :) – Void May 7 at 11:57
  • @Void, thanks, you see, if I put the "d" in, it does not sound as in the original recording: dropbox.com/s/9u2y8g194gr428p/SER_Unit2_how-long-have2.m4a?dl=0 – Emy May 7 at 12:03
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    @Emy: Because the original speaker seems to be a native speaker of American English. You need practice to achieve that pronunciation. :P English consonant clusters are harder to pronounce than those of many other languages – Void May 7 at 12:10

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