Bose had his eye on the result of the action. When war clouds hung over Europe, he saw the situation as an opportunity to take advantage of the British weakness. He believed in seizing whatever opportunity was available to carry forward the struggle for freedom. He openly criticised the British for professing to fight for the freedom of the European nations under Nazi control but refusing to grant independence to its own colonies, including India. He had no compunction in taking the help of the Nazis or the Fascists and later of Imperial Japan—the ‘Axis powers’ as they came to be called when the war broke out—even though he believed in freedom and equality and other liberal ideals and disapproved of the arrogant racialism of the Nazis and the suppression of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany (as his writings show). However, he admired the Nazis and the Fascists for their discipline. Bose’s supporters point out that his association with Germany and Japan was dictated by revolutionary strategy and not by ideological kinship. In other words, he was just a pragmatist; he was against the Fascist theory of racial superiority and the Fascist acceptance of capitalism

2 Answers 2


The only relevant bit is this:

He had no compunction in taking the help of the Nazis or the Fascists and later of Imperial Japan

To break this down:

He had no compunction in taking the help

This is the first section, which just describes him receiving help from.

of ((the Nazis) or (the Fascists))

He receives help from the Nazis, the first noun, and the Fascists, the secound noun.

and later

The "and" here just extends the list of places he got help from. "Later" here refers to the fact that he got (...) at a later date than (or after) the Nazis and Fascists mentioned above.

of (Imperial Japan)

So, putting it all together: He had no compunction in taking the help (of (the Nazis - or - the Fascists)) and later: (of Imperial Japan).


It indicates that he took the help of the Nazis first, and then later as in "at a later time" or "at a date after than that of which he took the help of the Nazis" he then also accepted the help of Imperial Japan.

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