Can we use the article 'the' before the name (Martin) in the below sentence? Generally, we do not use article before the person's name.
"Please provide the Martin's signature."
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No, not generally.
There are cases where a noun might be the same as someone's name where this usage may appear (without context) to be confusing.
Please provide Baker's signature
Would be valid if the person's surname was "Baker"
Please provide the Baker's signature
Would be valid if the person's profession was a Baker.
At least, not in the context you have provided. There is an idiomatic usage for putting "the" before a person's name, but it is usually used to clarify you are speaking about a specific person with that name.
For example, I was on a flight one time and struck up a conversation with an elderly couple. I learned during the course of the conversation that their last name was Buffett. At one point I asked them why they were travelling and they said that they were travelling to see their son James.
"James.." I replied. "Wait, James as in Jimmy? As in the Jimmy Buffett?!"
"We just call him James," the woman responded.
1Disclaimer: While the story is true, it was over 20 years ago, so it's possible I got some of the details wrong.
If using the definite article in front of a person's name is acceptable in Indian English, it might be appropriate. But in British or American English it is not, it should be:
Please provide Martin's signature.
It's important to note that Martin is both a common first name and family name. The sentence could create misunderstanding: is the author of the request on first-name terms or is Martin referring to a Mr, Miss or Ms Martin?
If I needed to be more polite and formal, I'd use the person's title in front of their surname (last name), e.g.
Please provide us with Dr./ Mr. / Ms. Martin's signature.
I presume the receiver of the message is not the Mr or Ms Martin. (That last sentence, where the is stressed, is perfectly grammatical because I am asking whether it is the same person.)