Were you to say, "I'm suffered enough," that would mean others suffer you enough (i.e., others put up with you enough, tolerate you enough). It would not refer to your own suffering but to the suffering of others because of you, suffering you cause them. That's because it would employ the passive voice, so it'd be employing a transitive verb definition of "suffer" that in the active voice would make you the direct object, the cause of suffering, not the subject, the sufferer (see definitions 5, 6, and 7 of "suffer").
Were you to say, "I've suffered enough," that would refer to your own suffering, not the suffering of others, that you've endured enough suffering yourself.
Example of Well-Known, Contemporary Use of "Suffer" Used Transitively from Wikipedia:
Suffer fools gladly is a well-known phrase in contemporary use, first
coined by Saint Paul in his second letter to the Church at Corinth
(chapter 11). The full verse of the original source of the idiom, 2
Corinthians 11:19 (KJV), reads "For ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye
yourselves are wise." In its current
usage, the meaning of the negative, not to suffer fools gladly, has
been stated by the Cambridge Idiom Dictionary, 2nd Ed. (2006), as "to
become angry with people you think are stupid".