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Is it called a hinge? Because when I look up hinge, I get something that looks completely different:

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So what do you call the thing that let it go up and down? And what do you describe the metallic part that moves because of the hinge? Is there a more generic term? In this case, it's a visor, but what's the generic word for something that moves because of a hinge?

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You're right, "hinge" doesn't quite fit. This is called a pivot:

a fixed point supporting something that turns or balances

Here's an example sentence from the Wikipedia page for armet:

The typical armet consisted of four pieces: the skull, the two large hinged cheek-pieces which locked at the front over the chin, and a visor which had a double pivot, one either side of the skull.

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It can be called a hinge, pivot, joint, or articulation. Those all mean basically the same thing, but with slightly different connotations. As you mention, "hinge" is associated with joining things like doors, the top of a chest, etc. While the hinge you found looks different from the pivots on the helmets, it's the same basic structure.

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