I kinda confuse about these suffixes and how they work.

  1. for example: Closed places vs. Close places
    "Close" can be adj., v. and I've been taught that when adding -ed to a verb, it'll become adjective, so what's the difference between these?
  • Closed places
  • Close places
  1. Rusting, rusty, rusted
  • A rusting gun
  • A rusty gun
  • A rusted gun

How to differentiate them? They're all adjectives (especially the -Ing)

  1. Confuse, confused, confusing
    I'm afraid of this word, mainly because I don't really understand what makes them different from each other :(
  • I confuse?
  • I'm confused?
  • I'm confusing?

When should I know -ed, -ing work as a verb and when work as adjective? (or basically: How do -ed & -ing suffixes work?)


You shouldn't think of it as adjective or verb depending on the ending. Either something has happened (-ed) or it is still happening (-ing).

If the stored is "closed", someone has closed the store and you are describing its state now.

If you are confused, something has confused you, and "confused" is your state now.

If something is "confusing", it is still in the process, just like "closing". It is making you confused.

If you confuse, you are the one who is making someone confused.

Same goes for rusty:

A rusting gun is in the process of becoming rusty.

A rusted gun is not idiomatic, but means a gun that became rusty before and is now rusted. Best to call it rusty and not worry about when it happened though.

  • Same goes for rusty: A rusting gun is in the process of becoming rusty. ———//////////——— did you want to write rusting instead of rusty?
    – Void
    May 31 at 11:04
  • if I say "Closed places", does that mean those places closed forever or used to be but now they're not?
    – c934
    May 31 at 11:14
  • 1
    A closed shop could either have closed for the night or have gone out of business. NB Close as an adjective has the different meaning nearby. May 31 at 12:53
  • rusty gun/s is by far the most common "adjectival qualifier",... May 31 at 15:43
  • ...but among the "also-rans", rusted gun/s is slightly more common than rusting gun/s May 31 at 15:44

It's difficult for me to explain them in detail, but I'll try my best.

The meaning usually depends on context; however, ​there are some rules of thumb that might help you understand what -ed and -ing mean:

Adjectives ending in -ed

Adjectives ending in -ed usually describe your feelings and emotions, for example, I'm confused means ‘there's something I'm unable to interpret and it caused me confusion’. By contrast, I'm confusing means ‘I am difficult to understand/ I will cause you confusion’.

When -ed–adjectives describe emotions and feelings, they aren't used with inanimate objects, however, when you find them used with inanimate objects, think of them as passive tense. When used with objects, they mean the action has been done to the object, for instance, ‘a rusted gun’ means the action (rusting) has been done to the gun.

Now close (adj) Vs closed is a bit difficult to explain, but ‘close places’ would mean that the places are physically near you whereas ‘closed places’ would mean that the places aren't open for business.

A rusting gun means its in the middle of rusting (present). A rusty gun means its rusted (past). A rusted gun means it rusted in the past. The last two mean the same thing.

Adjectives ending in -ing

They usually describe the cause of the feeling/emotion, for example, X is confusing would mean that it is the thing that caused you to be confused. A boring film would mean that the film bored you.

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