It's difficult for me to explain them in detail, but I'll try my best.
The meaning usually depends on context; however, there are some rules of thumb that might help you understand what -ed and -ing mean:
Adjectives ending in -ed
Adjectives ending in -ed usually describe your feelings and emotions, for example, I'm confused means ‘there's something I'm unable to interpret and it caused me confusion’. By contrast, I'm confusing means ‘I am difficult to understand/ I will cause you confusion’.
When -ed–adjectives describe emotions and feelings, they aren't used with inanimate objects, however, when you find them used with inanimate objects, think of them as passive tense. When used with objects, they mean the action has been done to the object, for instance, ‘a rusted gun’ means the action (rusting) has been done to the gun.
Now close (adj) Vs closed is a bit difficult to explain, but ‘close places’ would mean that the places are physically near you whereas ‘closed places’ would mean that the places aren't open for business.
A rusting gun means its in the middle of rusting (present). A rusty gun means its rusted (past). A rusted gun means it rusted in the past. The last two mean the same thing.
Adjectives ending in -ing
They usually describe the cause of the feeling/emotion, for example, X is confusing would mean that it is the thing that caused you to be confused. A boring film would mean that the film bored you.