In my work as a teacher, I get a document each year specifying all my work tasks for the academic year – what courses I will teach, how much administration I have and so on. Now I'm wondering what you call this kind of document, detailing your different work tasks over the year. I've tried googling "work plan" and "employment plan", but neither seems to be used for this kind of document.
In teaching, the subject matter to be taught that year is laid out in a syllabus, but I don't think that includes administration tasks.
We do use "work plan" in my employment (UK government) to refer to a plan of specific tasks that will be carried out over a planned period of time, and this seems to be an accepted term. A lot of the Google results turn up project-related definitions, but likely only because that is an area where they are heavily used.
A 'Job Description' (sometimes abbreviated to 'JD') is a document that details the various tasks and responsibilities within a role, but it will not detail the specifics such as the subject matter a teacher will teach that year, so I don't believe this is what you are looking for.
A technical term commonly now used to describe instructions for a specific task at work is 'SOP', which stands for Standard Operating Procedure. However, a SOP may include the work of more than one person, or just part of one person's role, so this also may not be suitable.