"The children were rolling over on the floor."
Does this phrase describe what they're doing? I am wondering if it's "rolling over", "rolling" or something else.
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They are simply "rolling".
To "roll over" is a phrasal verb that includes a resulting state, over, which means to be inverted after rolling.
(Of course, rolling over twice means that you return to your original, uninverted state. You could also say of the children that they are rolling over again and again, but just rolling describes what they are doing.)