0

I have two sentences and I hope anyone can take a look.

Having carried out the experiment several times, the scientists finally succeeded in developing a new vaccine.

Carrying out the experiment several times, the scientists finally succeeded in developing a new vaccine.

Are these sentences grammatical? Are they identical, or is the latter better in any way?

In my opinion, the second sentence is less confused and somehow gives an easier flow of action.

1
  • Same thing. No worries.
    – Lambie
    Jul 9, 2021 at 20:11

1 Answer 1

0

Both work, but they have somewhat different meanings, nuanced meanings.

The modifier that starts "Having carried out" conveys that as an effect or consequence of carrying out the experiment several times previously, the scientists finally succeeded, like maybe the success came by reviewing their notes afterwards, by going back and reexamining those prior experiments, or for whatever reason after the final one of those several experiments was complete.

The modifier that starts "Carrying out" conveys that the scientists finally succeeded while carrying the experiments out several times, so success was found during experimentation, not afterwards as a consequence.

The difference between the two modifiers is exactly the same as the difference between using the present continuous and the present perfect.

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .