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What is the difference beetwen two sentences?
1) sometimes they are only fiction, or what is called the black art.”
2)sometimes they are only fiction, or what the black art is called.”

But where was the nightingale to be found? The nobleman went upstairs and down, through halls and passages; yet none of those whom he met had heard of the bird. So he returned to the emperor, and said that it must be a fable, invented by those who had written the book. “Your Imperial Majesty,” said he, “cannot believe everything contained in books; sometimes they are only fiction, or what is called the black art.”

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The original quote is correct, and your suggestion is, unfortunately, incorrect.

An object has a name, not the other way around. 'What' is being used as a pronoun, referring to the content of the books. It is saying that "the black art" is a name that the content referred to may be called by.

Reversing the structure as you suggest would imply that "the black art" is the object being named. And I'm not sure what the name would be... it might sound like you were referring back to the aforementioned 'fiction'. It isn't correct.

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