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I've encountered a sentence like this:

Alice disagrees with Bob, and so does Cathy.

My question is, can I say "and neither does Cathy" instead? Since in some sense disagree means do not agree.

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No. Because "neither" (in this construction) can only be used when you have just used the word "not": "it is not X and neither is it Y" or "A does not and neither does B". (Maybe there's some other word you could use in place of "not", but off the top of my head I can't think of one.) The fact that "disagrees" means "doesn't agree" is irrelevant. The fact that a word in some sense means "not this other thing" doesn't make it a "not" for purposes of using "neither". Just like, you would say, "Alice hates broccoli, and so does Cathy", NOT "Alice hates broccoli, and neither does Cathy." Just because "hate" sort of means "doesn't like" doesn't make it the word "not".

You could say, "Alice does not agree with Bob, and neither does Cathy." Indeed once you used the "not", it wouldn't make sense to say "and so does Cathy".

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