Translate is always going to be correct: it means
to turn into one's own or another language (Merriam-Webster)
It isn't exaggerated, but possible alternatives if talking to somebody else might be
What does that mean in English?
How do you say that in English?
What's that in English?
In other situations, although I suspect this might be regional and context dependent (so I wouldn't advise using it, but for the sake of completeness) I sometimes use "put" or even "go". I would never write this though (except here to explain how I'd say it!).
These leaflets need to be put into German, French and Spanish before the deadline.
Sandrine, could you put this paragraph into French for me please?
These leaflets need to go into German, French and Spanish before the deadline.