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Am I right that a preposition "in" is more appropriate in the first sentence because after that I wrote about that time I spent (It was exciting.)?

Maybe, it is better to use another preposition in this case, for example, "into".

Or are there the same grammar rules as in the second and third sentences?

I have been in/to Edinburgh Castle. It was exciting.

I have been to Scotland. It was exciting. (I said, when I sat on my sofa.)

I have been in Scotland. It is exciting. (I said, when I called my parents from Scotland.)

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  • I have been in or inside the Kremlin. I have been to the Kremlin. But for a country, using inside is more complicated.
    – Lambie
    Aug 14 '21 at 20:49
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    You wouldn't say "I have been in Scotland" if you were still there - unless you added "...for X days." Aug 15 '21 at 12:47
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It depends if you visited the general area or actually went inside, and how specific you want to be. "I went to Edinburgh Castle" could imply you went inside, but it could just mean you went to the periphery and viewed it from the outside. To say you went "in" the castle would very specifically mean you went inside.

Context can affect the perceived meaning. For example, a person might well say "I went to the theatre" to mean they went inside the theatre and saw a performance. Aside from being idiomatic, it is a safe assumption that a person wouldn't go to a theatre unless they were going to see something inside. With your example though, some people may visit Edinburgh and just view the castle from the outside. You couldn't assume they went inside unless they said so.

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The natural way of saying this is, "I've been to Edinburgh Castle".

If you say, "I've been to Edinburgh Castle", it strongly implies you have been inside, and I would be surprised and confused to hear you hadn't. If it's important in the context to state that you were actually inside, then you could say that.

For example, in the case of a place like the Great Pyramid of Giza, where many people visit the site, but almost nobody is ever allowed in, then specifying that you'd been "in" the Pyramid would be worth noting. But Edinburgh Castle is open to tourists.

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