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Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, thank you very much. (Harry Potter)

Why is ‘thank you very much’? jotted down? Is it a kind of greetings when you start speaking or writing? Or does it just have the causality with the previous mention?

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The expression thank you very much is used in this context to keep an imaginary discussion short and curt. It's an emphatic yet not-quite-impolite way of expressing the notion of, "I'm a bit bothered by something you just said; let's not go there."

Here are some example uses:

Ted: I think you should go out with Linda again.
Ed: I think I can make up my own mind about that, thank you very much.

In this case, Ed is basically telling Ted that his relationship with Linda is not really any of his business, and he doesn't want to enter into a discussion about it.

Mike: Aren't you going to finish college? You only have one year left!
Ike: Nope, I've decided I want to take the ski instructor's job.
Mike: But that's crazy!
Ike: Choosing a career is my business, thank you very much.

In a similar way, Ike is using the expression as a hint that it's time to end this debate, not commence it.

As to the Dursley family, if anyone were to inquire about their rather odd nephew Harry, "We don't have much to say about him, thank you very much." Put another way: "We are a normal family; let's not talk about that aberration who lives under the stairs."

It's an odd use of an expression that is usually meant to convey gratitude, but Wiktionary lists two meanings:

thank you very much
1. Said to express greater gratitude than would be conveyed by thank you.
2. Obviously (principally UK; implying offence that anyone could have doubted the statement)  

Even though the Wiktionary entry mentions "principally UK", the expression is generally used and understood in the U.S. as well.

I like that one-word definition of "Obviously"; it sustains the meaning of the expression fairly well:

Ted: I think you should go out with Linda again.
Ed: I think I can make up my own mind about that, obviously.

or:

Mr. and Mrs. Dursley were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, obviously.

How dare we think otherwise!

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    Yes. Effectively, "I'm perfectly happy with what I just said, and I will thank you very much not to question my position". – FumbleFingers Reinstate Monica Feb 22 '13 at 15:46

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