Fonseca, 2021 states that

Most studies on the political economy of regulating pharmaceuticals are focused on the US and European contexts (Carpenter 2010; Maor 2011; Vogel 2012; Schweitzer & Lu 2018), with few comparative initiatives. We still know very little about the mechanics of pharmaceutical regulation in comparative perspective

I am wondering what do " comparative initiatives " and "comparative perspective" mean in this context? I understand the isolated words themselves but do not understand when matching them together.

1 Answer 1


This does not strike me as well written English. The lead author appears to be Brazilian and may not be a native speaker of English. In context, however it appears that what is meant is

Most studies on pharmaceutical regulation are focused on the U.S. or E.U., with few studies that compare regulation among different countries. Consequently, we know little about the different effects of different regulatory practices.

  • Hi @Jeff, thank you for your simplicity, I am wondering what should we say if we still really want to explain the two bold phrases mentioned? Commented Aug 18, 2021 at 16:02
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    @NoviceMindset Incompetence in writing English is the explanation. “Comparative initiatives” is a sloppy way to say “comparative studies,” which means studies comparing different regulatory approaches. “Mechanics … in a comparative perspective” appears to be a very clumsy way of saying “effects … arising from different regulatory approaches. It is close to gibberish. Commented Aug 18, 2021 at 18:15
  • ah, I see now, now I get the point Commented Aug 18, 2021 at 22:02

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