When sphenoid is an adjective, it is an anatomical usage, and technical usage at that. One would never apply sphenoid as a multiple, as in its state as a noun, it is strictly singular. One could, alternatively, use ". . .has lots of sphenoid bones".
However, in any case, it is not gradable. One could determine this status (gradable or not) by understanding the definition of the words. In the case of sphenoid the meaning provided is a singular one. It is either one bone, or a single bony structure. On the other hand, for rain, or rainy, we are discussing something with a variable quantity - not an individual raindrop.
Just out of curiosity, I put this to a little test, and asked Google for a random adjective. Google gave me Pyrrhic. Good choice! This describes something singular, the typical example is a Pyrrhic victory, and victory is singular, right? Except, like the rain, whatever the battle was fought with (soldiers, money, whatever) is, like the raindrops that make up the rain, a quantity. Thus, it is gradable, and one could use a very Pyrrhic victory to indicate a higher cost.
While this next may be less useful in consideration of what is gradable, or not, there is a case where very sphenoid could be used. If one was in a discussion of alien anatomy, one could say:
This bone is very sphenoid.
This usage example is comparative, essentially saying the bone structure in discussion is very similar in some way to bones we identify as sphenoid bones. Because sphenoid is singular, it would be the degree of similarity that was quantifiable, and thus gradable. (It is also a very uncomfortable usage, and I would think one would more likely hear This bone is very similar to the sphenoid. This latter would certainly be clearer and more understandable.)