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Can I say, for example:

I hate math since I was in primary school!

or

I hated math since I was in primary school!

Can I use "since" with the present simple tense?

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I hate math since I was in primary school!

means that being in primary school caused you to hate math. It is the same as saying, "I hate math because I was in primary school."

To say that you started hating math in primary school and still hate it, you would say,

I have hated math ever since I was in primary school.

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    Your second example sentence is most correct, however, the OPs second example I hated math since I was in primary school! has become common usage and few would blink twice at hearing it. Some would shudder, though, and all should.
    – FreeMan
    Aug 31 at 13:51
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    @FreeMan OTOH "I hated math since I had a lousy teacher" would be understood as a cause. The past tense suggests that they no longer hate it.
    – Barmar
    Aug 31 at 14:20
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    "Since" should not be used as a synonym for "because," precisely because the meaning is unclear. Use "since" for placement in time only. That's longstanding AP Style Guide advice.
    – user8356
    Aug 31 at 14:33
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    @FreeMan Has it? I haven't heard such usage personally. Is it regional perhaps? Do you know of any examples I could look up? Such a change seems believable based on people being lazy and "I've hated" sounding so similar to "I hated".
    – Readin
    Sep 1 at 3:45
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    @user8356 It is like that because mentioning a temporal chain is often the same as suggesting a causal link. Since this - then that. Sep 1 at 13:34
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A native speaker isn't likely to say either of those - you'd expect to see either

I've hated math since primary school!

or

I've hated math ever since I was in primary school!

or even

I've hated math since I was in primary school

Without the "have" (in "I've") or the "ever" in the second example as the other answer states, the "since" is taking on it's definition of "because" rather than "from this time" - "I hated X since Y" could imply Y is the cause of hating X.

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    Most people will understand "I've hated math since I was in primary school!" to mean the same as "I've hated math ever since I was in primary school!" The suggestion that omitting "ever" changes the meaning to "because" seems incorrect; people can work out which meaning is more likely from context, and it makes no sense at all for somebody to say "I've hated math because I was in primary school!" Aug 31 at 15:25
  • I think both examples in this answer mean time. The first one does not mean reason. Even if you change "since primary school" to "since I was in primary school" I still think it means time.
    – user253751
    Aug 31 at 15:43
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    @AnthonyGrist The "ever" does clarify the meaning though. "I've hated math since I was in primary school!" could mean "because", but "I've hated math ever since I was in primary school!" clearly refers to time.
    – Readin
    Sep 1 at 5:00
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    @AnthonyGrist OP didn't say "I've hated" though, he said "I hated" - there he uses the "have" to provide the temporal aspect. Although a native speaker would probably understand all of those to convey the meaning, it's less ambiguous. I've clarified a bit. Sep 1 at 8:27
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    Re "A native speaker isn't likely to say either of those": Indeed. It often comes from word-for-word direct translation from the native language (e.g., "seit" in German - the OP's screen name suggests German). A typical example is "Since two years, I have..." vs. "For the past two year, I have" Sep 1 at 9:52

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