Is "instead" used properly in the following? If not, please explain.
Joe rides a bike to work while all of his friends drive cars instead.
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It's redundant. I don't see that it adds meaning, except maybe as emphasis. The word "while" already establishes a contrast between what the two groups do, and that contrast is the subject of the sentence:
2a : when on the other hand :WHEREAS
easy for an expert, while it is dangerous for a novice
Whereas (indicating a contrast) one person wants out, while the other wants the relationship to continue